A new study suggests children who struggle to speak at the age of two are less likely to do well when they start school.
Kids who own more books and are taken to the library as toddlers are also more likely to achieve higher scores.
The research by the University of the West of England, Bristol, Sheffield and Edinburgh University looked at how the environment in which a child learns to communicate affects their readiness for school.
Weapons of the Era
Weaponry at the time of King Alfred, in the late 9th century focused on swords. The influx of civilisations and their cultures changed the face of Britain and the weapons and tools used there.
In a time structured by battles, weapons were a symbol of status. Looking at the literature at the time battles were central, such as in Beowulf. In the epic poem, the protagonist Beowulf takes art in three great battles stretched over time. The battles are the pillars of the tale with the story fabricated around them.
In her new novel Borvo, Denny Bradbury depicts the struggle of a pagan boy who comes to the aid of King Alfred. Instead of using weapons he uses healing to help him – rather than force.
In Winchester, the statue of King Alfred shows him holding a sword aloft. The status of a powerful war king was important during his era. With his sword held in the air he looks heroic and strong.
Elsewhere, in China Taoist monks had stumbled across an early form of gunpowder, which would later become infamous in Britain. The monks were supposedly trying to create the exilir of eternal youth when they created the formation for saltpetre, one of the components for gunpowder.
The phrase ‘the pen is mightier than the sword’ is suggested to come originally from the 9th century – possibly by King Arthur himself. So perhaps the allure and status of weaponry was losing its power.
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Ever since I was introduced to her writing I have been intrigued by Mother Julian’s life style as an anchorite and also by the wisdom within her texts. Her most famously quoted saying is of course, ‘All shall be well, all shall be well, all manner of things shall be well.’ That seems to me to be our modern interpretation on a more difficult theme. One translation gives a more subtle and consequently more difficult offering, she feels that god has told her, ‘I will make all things well, I shall make all things well, I may make all things well; and you shall see for yourself that all things shall be well.’ However we have to stretch for the deeper understanding I feel that there is an optimism in the whole passage that gives comfort through some darker times.